• Portfolios / Non-CO₂ Mitigation

    Improving indoor and outdoor air quality can help avoid 6.8 million premature deaths each year.

  • Portfolios / Non-CO₂ Mitigation

    Enhancing emissions controls on marine vessels can help preserve Arctic sea ice and slow dangerous sea-level rise.

  • Portfolios / Non-CO₂ Mitigation

    Limiting ozone pollution could save enough grain worldwide to feed 1.5 billion people per year.

Annual Emissions Reductions Potential / 2030 Breakdown by ClimateWorks Priority Regions

Annual Emissions Reductions Potential / 2030 Breakdown by ClimateWorks Priority Regions

Annual Emissions Reductions Potential / Breakdown by ClimateWorks Priority Regions

Key Data Points

Rapidly reducing non-CO₂ emissions could cut global warming 0.6°C by 2050 and save millions of lives.


The Montreal Protocol cut chlorofluorocarbons more than 80%, and can do the same for F-gases.


Existing technology can reduce methane leakage from oil and gas production by 70%.

The Non-CO₂ Mitigation Portfolio

The Non-CO₂ Mitigation Portfolio seeks rapid and steep reductions of black carbon, F-gases, and methane emissions in China, India, Europe, and the Americas, with a focus on seven strategic areas.


There are several ways to reduce F-gas (fluorinated gas) emissions from refrigeration, air conditioning, foam production, and other industrial processes. These include national regulations, sector-specific rules, incentive mechanisms, and international treaties like the Montreal Protocol. In all cases, the availability of cost-effective alternatives is crucial. ClimateWorks and its partners are making the economic and technological case for these less harmful, more sustainable alternatives. Simultaneously, we are advocating for changes in government regulation, business practice, and consumer behavior.

To support the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol, in which 197 countries committed to cut the production and consumption of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) – a potent greenhouse gas used in refrigeration and air conditioning – ClimateWorks runs a flagship initiative called the Kigali Cooling Efficiency Program (K-CEP). K-CEP is a $51 million philanthropic collaboration that focuses on improving the energy efficiency of cooling to increase and accelerate the climate and development impacts of the Kigali Amendment. By simultaneously working to reduce HFCs and improve energy efficiency in refrigeration and air conditioning, this has the potential to avoid up to 1° C of warming.

Diesels Vehicles & Engines

Diesel exhaust is loaded with black carbon, also known as soot. Particulate filters combined with low-sulfur fuel can cut black carbon emissions from diesel vehicles and engines by 99 percent. Rapid, worldwide introduction of these technologies and the retirement or retrofitting of older, dirty diesels are essential to slowing climate change and protecting public health. ClimateWorks and its partners are supporting efforts to speed such technologies to market, while advancing parallel efforts to increase efficiency, promote clean vehicle technologies, and deploy smarter mass transportation systems.

Methane Leakage

The US shale development boom has heightened public concern about methane emissions. Fortunately, cost-effective technology, strong regulations, and effective enforcement can substantially reduce methane leakage from oil and gas production. Minimizing such leaks is also needed to achieve the full climate benefits of substituting natural gas for coal or heavy fuel oil. ClimateWorks and its partners are advocating for methane controls at both the state and national levels. Once best practices have been established and implemented, these efforts will expand to other oil and gas producing regions around the globe.

Marine Emissions

Ocean-going vessels are a small but growing contributor to total global warming pollution. Vessels transiting through northern shipping routes pose an additional threat since their sooty emissions deposit on Arctic snow and ice, hastening the melting process. Increased fuel efficiency, lower sulfur fuel, improved engine design, and exhaust after-treatment can significantly reduce marine-related emissions. ClimateWorks and its partners are advocating for stronger global regulations by the International Marine Organization and by individual coastal nations.  Through media campaigns, we are also raising consumer awareness of the full climate footprint of shipped goods, inland ferries, and pleasure cruises. 

India Brick Kilns

Rudimentary brick kilns are inefficient and emit substantial amounts of black carbon, which harms public health and increases global warming. India has a large proportion of traditional bull trench kilns, which are in urgent need of upgrading. Accordingly, ClimateWorks and its partners are promoting brick kiln modernization in India, encouraging businesses to upgrade or retire old kilns and seeking corresponding changes in environmental policy. But since that is only a partial solution, we hope to help India ultimately shift the country towards more sustainable walling materials, such as concrete blocks with high-fly ash content.

European Residential Heating

Wood heaters and boilers are the largest remaining source of black carbon in Europe, accounting for 50 percent of the total. The emissions from these stoves are accelerating the melting of Arctic sea ice and contributing to regional air pollution. To address this problem, ClimateWorks and its partners are promoting tighter European Commission Directives for residential solid fuel use, eco-labeling programs, and ultimately the use of small, insertable exhaust pipe catalysts.

Alignment & Data Gathering

ClimateWorks is not the only player in the non-CO₂ mitigation space. Close coordination with other funders – including but not limited to like-minded foundations, the Climate & Clean Air Coalition, and the World Bank – is needed to maximize returns on non-CO₂ investments. Similarly, there is a need for good data and thoughtful analyses. ClimateWorks and its partners are generating and making available improved data on non-CO₂ mitigation methods, and demonstrating their applicability to various geographies to help advance increasingly ambitious strategies.

Non-CO₂ Mitigation Program Team

ClimateWorks' Non-CO₂ Mitigation Portfolio is coordinated by experts in public policy, environmental regulations, science, politics, and philanthropy, in collaboration with ClimateWorks' funding and regional partners.

Contact us to learn more.

Jason Anderson

Director, International Engagement and Non-CO₂ Initiatives

Jessica Brown

Director, Kigali Cooling Efficiency Program

Jessica Brown is the Director of the Kigali Cooling Efficiency Program (www.k-cep.org). She is an internationally recognized expert with a decade and a half of experience in international climate policy, climate finance, and sustainable development.

Before joining ClimateWorks, Jessica was the Associate Director of Climate Policy Initiative. Jessica also served as Foreign Affairs Officer at the State Department where she led the international climate finance negotiations on behalf of the United States. Jessica has also worked as a Research Fellow at the Overseas Development Institute and Associate at California Environmental Associates.

Jessica holds a Masters in International Development Studies from the London School of Economics, a Masters in Environmental Policy from Columbia University, and a Bachelors in Political Science from Barnard College.

Dan Hamza-Goodacre

Executive Director, Kigali Cooling Efficiency Program

Dan Hamza-Goodacre is Executive Director of the Kigali Cooling Efficiency Program, a global initiative helping developing countries improve the efficiency of cooling as they reduce pollution from F-gases. Dan has worked on sustainable development in the public and private sectors across the globe for over 20 years. Prior to K-CEP, Dan was Director of Buildings and Industry at ClimateWorks. Before working in philanthropy, Dan was with PwC, where he served as Deputy CEO of the Climate and Development Knowledge Network, a multi-lateral aid program to help developing countries respond to climate change. Dan held various posts with the U.K. Environment and Agriculture Ministry, including: Head of the Secretary of State’s office; co-founder of the UK’s Adapting to Climate Change Program; Adaptation Policy Lead for the UK Climate Change Act and Sustainable Agriculture Advisor. Dan also worked for the UK Foreign Office as a Climate Attaché. He is a regular speaker and moderator at conferences and events and has written widely on climate and development. Dan has an MSc in International Development from Bristol University, where he also lectured and researched global environmental politics. In his early career Dan lived and worked in the rainforests of Latin America.

Xiaoyi Jin

Program Assistant, Kigali Cooling Efficiency Program

Helen Picot

Head of Strengthening for Efficiency and Access to Cooling, Kigali Cooling Efficiency Program

Helen Picot is the Senior Associate on the Buildings and Industry program. Prior to joining ClimateWorks, Helen spent three years working in PwC’s Sustainability and Climate Change consultancy in London. There she worked on a range of climate and international development projects, including the Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN), a DFID and Dutch-funded global program that supports developing countries in the climate negotiations. Helen holds a BA and MSci in Natural Sciences (Geology) from Cambridge University, and an MSc in Environmental Technology from Imperial College London.

Ruth Sego

Program Associate, International Engagement and Non-CO2 Mitigation

Ruth Cherono Sego is a Program Associate in the International Engagement and Non-CO2 portfolios where she brings over four years of experience in global environmental policy and multi-lateral environmental engagement. At ClimateWorks, Ms. Sego co-ordinates the Non-CO2 Initiative’s campaign to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions and Black Carbon from maritime transportation and shipping and helps to co-ordinate strategic climate policy initiatives for the International Engagement portfolio. She also provides technical assessments for grant-making in both portfolios. Ms. Sego was previously based at the global headquarters of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in Nairobi where her work focused on strategic communications and global environmental policy.

Ms. Sego holds a Master’s in Environmental Management from Yale University’s School of Forestry and Environmental Studies with a concentration in Energy and Climate.

Catherine Witherspoon

Senior Advisor

Catherine Witherspoon advises ClimateWorks on the linkages between air quality management, short lived climate pollutants, and climate mitigation. Previously, she served as the program director for ClimateWorks’ non-CO₂ fast action campaign. She has 26 years of regulatory, legislative, and management experience in the air quality field. Ms. Witherspoon started as a student assistant at the California Air Resources Board in 1981, and eventually rose to Executive Officer (2003-2007). In that role, she managed a staff of 1,100 and an annual budget of $350 million. Ms. Witherspoon was directly involved in the drafting of the California Clean Air Act and California’s landmark Greenhouse Gas Solutions Act.  In the mid-1990s, she left state government and served briefly as an Expert Consultant to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Region 9), Legislative Director for the South Coast Air Quality Management District, and sole proprietor of her own consulting firm, before returning to CARB in 1999 as Senior Policy Advisor to the then-Chairman Dr. Alan Lloyd.  Ms. Witherspoon has a BA in Politics from the University of California at Santa Cruz.